General resources includes multiple and varied informational sources (e.g., articles, presentations, reports, webinars, briefs) on topics relation to RtI. Use the tabs below to select information specific to a key feature of RtI.
This article reviews current literature regarding the nature of academic English within the context of K–12 schooling with a focus on English learners. The article raises critical challenges in defining and operationalizing academic English for instruction and suggests areas for further inquiry.
This article provides a thoughtful comparison of three different articles authored by Vaughn (2003), O’Connor (2003), and Tilly (2003) on how many tiers are needed for successful prevention within an RtI framework. Each article is briefly summarized and then linked to the comparative studies. Marston examines and comments on consensus statements used within all three articles. Results are then explained and the author provided a summary of the comparison.
In this article, Diana Oxley discusses instructional programming through common frameworks for curriculum, instruction, assessment, and learning climate to achieve measurable improvements in student achievement. This resource comes from the Education Northwest website. For more information, please visit: http://educationnorthwest.org
This chapter addresses the nature of reading professionals and the diverse roles within reading professionals. It offers advice on professional development and reading interventions.
You can access this article by searching: Shanahan, T. (2008). Implications of RTI for the Reading Teacher. In D. Fuchs, L.S. Fuchs, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Response to Intervention (pp. 105-122). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Cummings, K. D., Atkins, T., Allison, R. & Cole, C. (2008)
The role of a special educator has evolved over time and will continue to evolve as a result of RtI. This article describes the impact legislative acts such as IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2001 have had an impact on education. Presented in the article is a chart comparing the historical role of the special education with their within a RtI model.
You can access this article by searching: Cummings, K. D., Atkins, T., Allison, R. & Cole, C. (2008). Response to Intervention: Investigating the New Role of Special Educators. Council for Exceptional Children, Mar/Apr, pp. 24-31
This article focuses on the role of the special education within an RtI model. It identifies five main roles and a variety of specific sub skills that, at minimal, special educators must possess. It presents a brief description of the structure within a multilevel instructional program and an historical overview of the evolving role of special educators.
You can access this article by searching: Hoover, J. J., & Patton, J. R. (2008). The Role of Special Educators in a Multitiered Instructional System. Intervention in School and Clinic, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 195-202
National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI)
A publication developed by the National Center on Response to Intervention. The document provides a definition of RtI and a review of essential RtI components: screening, progress monitoring, and data-based decision-making.
This brief contains the background, rationale, and evidence for implementing an uninterrupted, 90-minute literacy block as part of a comprehensive approach to teaching reading at the elementary school level.
James P. DeLorenzo, Statewide Coordinator for Special Education, Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities
A NYSED field memo describing the policy framework for RtI in regulations involving school-wide screenings, minimum components of RtI programs, parent notification, and the use of RtI to identify students with learning disabilities.
The Office of P-12 Education of the New York State Education Department (NYSED) announces the expansion of technical assistance resources to assist schools across the State to implement high quality programs of RtI and to seek “Applications of Interest” from school districts for technical assistance on RtI implementation from newly established regional professional development technical assistance teams. NYS school districts are strongly encouraged to avail themselves of the resources available through the State’s RtI Personnel Development Project. Further information regarding this project and application procedures are available by accessing the RtI-PDTeams field memo listed below.
This pamphlet provides parents, families and others with information regarding Response to Intervention (RtI). RtI is a process used in schools to provide well-designed instruction, closely monitor all students’ progress and provide additional instructional supports to students who are struggling. This additional help is to assist those students to keep up with learning in their classrooms, particularly in the areas of reading and math. At the end of this pamphlet, there is a reference list which provides sources for additional information for parents and websites where these resources can be found.
The pamphlet is now available in Spanish, Korean, Russian, Chinese, and Haitian Creole (see link below).
Institute of Education Sciences What Works Clearinghouse U.S. Department of Education (2009)
This Practice Guide was developed by a panel from the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). It includes five recommendations designed to help educators use RtI practices to identify students struggling in reading and to implement specific interventions and encourage reading success. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.
The University of the State of New York The State Education Department
The purpose of the guidance document is to provide information and guidance to school districts on how to design and implement an effective RtI process, including, but not limited to information regarding regulatory requirements, quality indicators, staff development, tools to assist districts in selecting a specific model and procedures for the use of RtI data in determining if a student has a learning disability. This guidance document should be used in conjunction with information available from the New York State Response to Intervention MS Demonstration Project.
Page 6 provides you with background information and an explanation of which RtI approach this team uses for their school. As you scroll down the page, you are provided with descriptions of each tier and an option to listen to Dr. Sharon Vaughn discuss considerations for Tier 3. At the bottom of the page you can move ahead to pages 7 and 8 for more information on tiered instruction.
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (2006)
This NRCLD article provides explanations on tier 1, tier 2 and tier 3 (as special education). Each section gives defining features of the supports and interventions. Included in each section are follow-up activities to activate thinking about implementing tiers within a multi-tiered RtI model. Each section concludes with recommended resources. A final section on parent involvement is presented with additional resources.
This presentation accompanied session three of the RTI TAC Webinar Strand Series #17, Fostering Reading Comprehension for Students in Grades 3-6. In this session, Dr. Katherine Stahl addressed research-based discussion protocols to help students expand and express comprehension.
A powerpoint presentation developed by the U.S. Department of Education that provides guidance regarding the use of funds under Title I and Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education (ESEA) and Coordinated Early Intervening Services (CEIS) under IDEA for the RtI process model
RtI involves systematic and regular use of data to make decisions about a student's relative risk status and response to instruction or intervention. In this keynote address, Dr. Hintze will discuss the purpose of universal screening and progress monitoring within an RtI model and their significance within a multi-tiered intervention model.
Ensuring a comprehensive and coherent instructional program is essential for student success. RtI provides a framework for ensuring that students receive the level and type of instruction they need for academic success. However, to ensure that English language learners will benefit from instruction in an RtI framework assessment and instruction practices must respond to both their academic and language needs. This session will present effective instruction strategies for ELLs in Tiers 1, 2 and 3 and factors to consider when interpreting assessments. Lecture, case studies, and interactive activities will be used.
Many failures of education reforms and practices are attributed to poor implementation. As schools adopt an RtI model, it is critical that essential RtI components are implemented with integrity. The focus of this presentation is on CBM implementation fidelity and practices to ensure CBM implementation fidelity in school settings. The presenter examines how general and special education teachers, reading specialists, literacy coaches, school psychologists, and school administration can ensure CBM implementation fidelity in their respective schools
This powerpoint presentation provides an overview of research in a multi-tiered RtI framework. Dr. Linan-Thompson and Dr. Dimino address the major components in all tiers stressing high levels of teacher-student interaction and differentiated reading instruction for all.
Response to Intervention is a multi-tiered early detection and intervening process that identifies struggling students early and assists them before they fall behind. RtI incorporates high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and frequent and regular progress monitoring. This all-day workshop, provided free of charge, provides an overview regarding the critical features and concepts of RtI followed by a set of tools school-based RtI teams can use to begin designing an RtI process. The workshop will also focus on how to establish building-level adoption or consensus for RtI. Each team will assess their school’s RtI readiness and leave with an action or implementation plan that will support preliminary RtI efforts in their school.
Curriculum–Based Measurement (CBM) is an assessment approach designed to measure the growth of student proficiency in core educational skills that are predictive of positive school success. This all-day workshop will provide an overview of CBM and discuss how to use CBM screening and progress monitoring data to make instructional decisions within a Response to Intervention (RtI) model. Steps involved in the RtI data-based decision making process will be outlined as well as procedures for establishing data-based decision making rules within a tiered intervention system.
Reviews the necessary foundation needed to begin to implement the Response to Intervention model at the secondary level. Examines a 3-tier RtI model and Part 200 regulations that involve classification of students with LD. Powerpoint identifies expectations at each tier within an RtI process with suggestions on how middle and high schools can begin to respond to these expectations.
RtI models that involve English Language Learners require a comprehensive, collaborative approach in which educators have a common understanding of second language acquisition, cultural influences on teaching and learning, and effective instructional practices. This all day workshop provides a brief overview of RtI and focuses on the relevant instructional and assessment factors schools need to consider when implementing the RtI process with English Language Learners. Participants will explore the essential features of RtI models with a focus on quality core instruction to ELLs, using data to identify struggling students, factors to consider when selecting "research-based interventions," aligning interventions with linguistic and cultural characteristics, the role of the problem-solving team, and evaluating student response.
Program Description: Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) is schoolwide, data-driven prevention model designed to maximize the impact of academic and behavioral instruction and intervention on student outcomes.
This all-day PD session will address the following topics: • Using Key Components of a MTSS Framework • Implementing the Common Core Learning Standards within MTSS • Integrating the Data-Based Problem-Solving Process (RtI) into a MTSS • Aligning Instruction/Interventions with the CCLS and Integrating Instructional Practices Across the Tiers • Ensuring the Integration of Academic Skills, Academic Behavior Expectations and Scaffolding to Maximize Student Engagement within the Instructional Process • Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities and Students with 504 Accommodations Through Specially Designed Instruction within an MTSS Framework
Across the country, schools are actively involved in the implementation of Response to Intervention, an early intervening process designed to identify students who may be at-risk for academic failure. The Council of Exceptional Children-Chapter 402 in collaboration with the Niagara Frontier Reading Council is pleased to host an RtI panel discussion by school-based practitioners who have extensive and practical RtI experience. The morning will begin with an overview of RtI models and processes from two New York State public schools who have been implementing RtI for several years. Panel presenters will describe their school’s RtI model, the role of school staff within the RtI process and identify critical factors to consider to ensure successful implementation. The panel discussion will conclude with an opportunity for attendees to ask questions relative to RtI to help further their own understanding of this early prevention process.
Provides a descriptive look at RtI starting with the challenges and eligibility guidelines to balanced workloads and collaboration between personnel. It discusses the role of SLP’s and describes what their role would look like within the RtI model.
IRA RtI Commission Members: Wixson, K., Valencia, S., Connor, C. (2010)
Begins with an overview and guiding principles on RtI developed by the International Reading Association. Two key ideas of assessment within an RtI framework are presented as well as a discussion related to the different purposes (screening, progress monitoring, diagnostic) of assessment. The powerpoint provides examples of each type of assessment and the kinds of information obtained.
While RtI holds great promise for preventing substandard academic achievement through universal screening, providing appropriate instruction and support in general education prior to academic failure, and monitoring progress, schools will need to consider additional socio-cultural, linguistic, and assessment factors when applying this model to English language learners (ELLs). This workshop provides a case study illustration of how these factors guide instruction and intervention within the multi-tiered RtI process. Although the case study is based on an elementary ELL student from a Spanish-speaking home, the same framework and factors may be applied with all ELLs.
As schools begin their work on a customized RtI model, the role of the building principal is an important consideration to the success of any proposed RtI framework. This presentation focuses on the infrastructure needed for an effective universal screening and progress monitoring process and the role of the building principal relative to these critical components.
This presentation will explain an approach to diagnostic assessment based on the Cognitive Model of Reading Assessment. This approach involves the use of informal measures useful in planning instruction at Tiers 2 and 3. The session will not address the use of formal diagnostic assessments typically used in special education. The principal focus will be fluency, decoding, sight words, and phonological awareness. Problems with diagnostic assessment in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension will be briefly examined.
RtI coaches are critical in analyzing data, targeting school grade level and individual goals, providing professional development, modeling in the classroom and assisting administration and teachers with data-driven instructional decisions. This presentation delivered at the 2010 NYS RtI TAC Summer Institute provides an overview of the roles of the RtI coach at the beginning of the school year specifically in universal screening, PM and Tier 1. Guidelines for facilitating RtI leadership team discussions are also addressed.
When screening and/or progress monitoring data indicate below grade level reading performance, supplemental or tiered intervention is provided. Tiered interventions constitute the heart of an RtI framework, and to be effective, require instruction that is highly focused and aligned to core or primary reading instruction and to the needs of the student. This presentation will focus on the nature of tiered interventions in grades K-4 in terms of early foundational skills essential to proficient reading: alphabetic principle, decoding, sight words, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. A discussion involving ELLs with respect to Tiers 2 and 3 intervention will center on the importance of vocabulary and spoken language.
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD)
Published in 2007 by the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD) this manual provides an overview of Responsiveness to Intervention and its primary components. The RtI Manual is organized around the following sections...
New York State Education Department P-12, Office of Special Education
Developed in collaboration with representatives from the Special Education Training and Resource Centers (SETRCS), New York State Education Department P-12, Office of Special Education personnel, and Dr. Lori Strong from the College of St. Rose, the guide identifies quality indicators of best practice instruction in literacy at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Presented in chart-format, the guide can be used as a tool to assess the quality of a school district’s instructional literacy program. The guide can be used to determine major areas of need and plan for necessary changes to literacy instruction.
This strand features three (3), one and a half hour webinars designed to provide participants with an introduction or overview of the critical features embedded within a RtI framework. Emphasis will focus on infrastructure issues which need to be addressed within a RtI prevention model. Discussion regarding how RtI fits within existing school reform initia- tives, such as Common Core, will be presented. Case study examples from NY state’s RtI pilot schools will be used to illustrate and exemplify critical concepts. Tools to assess schools and districts with RtI implementation will be discussed and provided.
Understanding the role of assessment is key to an efficient and effective RtI model. This strand is designed to facilitate a deeper understanding regarding the purposes and roles of assessment within a RtI framework. Specific attention will address: universal screening and progress monitoring, as well as diagnostic assessment. Key to understanding assessment within a RtI framework is an understanding of the purposes of assessment and how a school’s existing assessment measures can be used to gain understanding of student performance for comparative, progress, and instructional purposes.
Differentiating Core Instruction Within an RtI Framework is a 3-part webinar series that focuses on differentiated instruction within an RtI framework. It begins with a discussion of differentiated instruction as a teaching and learning process designed to address the diverse abilities of students in the same classroom. Succeeding sessions will discuss how classroom teachers can differentiate core instruction to accommodate the instructional needs of all students.
Response to Intervention and the ELA Common Core Learning Standards have prompted changes in the approach that schools must take in implementing effective literacy instruction. When conducting an assessment audit, teachers, schools, and districts inventory what tests every teacher is currently using. The audit also investigates the effectiveness of the data management system; evaluates the reliability, validity, and usefulness of each assessment, including alignment with CCSS; evaluates the fidelity of test administration and score interpretation; determines the type of professional development training needed to increase the reliability of the tests; eliminates redundant assessments and determines where new assessments are needed to fill voids. This webinar series will walk participants through the audit process, either as an individual, school team member, or district representative. The outcome is a lean and mean cohesive literacy assessment system that serves as the key component in an effective RTI framework.
Response to Intervention and the ELA Common Core Learning Standards (CCLS) have prompted changes in the approach that schools must take in implementing effective literacy instruction. When conducting an assessment audit, teachers, schools, and districts inventory what tests every teacher is currently using. The audit also investigates the effectiveness of the data management system; evaluates the reliability, validity, and usefulness of each assessment, including alignment with CCLS; evaluates the fidelity of test administration and score interpretation; determines the type of professional development training needed to increase the reliability of the tests; eliminates redundant assessments and determines where new assessments are needed to fill voids. This webinar series will walk participants through the audit process, either as an individual, school team member, or district representative. The outcome is a lean and efficient cohesive literacy assessment system that serves as the key component in an effective RTI framework.
This webinar was one in a series focusing on the essential components of RtI. Dr. Tackett provides an overview of primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention, the types of instruction and assessments at each level, where the instruction typically occurs, and the instructional decisions that can be made based on data.
National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI) Presented by Dr. Tessie Rose Bailey (2010)
This webinar is part of a series designed to increase fundamental knowledge of RtI. The essential components of RtI are explained, as well as the purposes of screening and progress monitoring. A brief explanation of how to use data to help inform decisions about student progress and movement through tiers is provided.
NCLD provides essential information to parents, professionals and individuals with learning disabilities, promotes research and programs to foster effective learning, and advocates for policies to protect and strengthen educational rights and opportunities.
Established through a partnership between the American Institutes for Research, Vanderbilt University and the University of Kansas and funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs, the NCRtI provides technical assistance designed to build capacity for RtI implementation at the state level. The center provides information in the form of articles, podcasts. Webinars, powerpoint presentations on a variety of topics and issues involving the RtI implementation and evaluation process.
The RTI Action Network is dedicated to the effective implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) in school districts nationwide. Their goal is to guide educators and families in the large-scale implementation of RTI so that each child has access to quality instruction and that struggling students – including those with learning disabilities – are identified early and receive the necessary supports to be successful.