General resources includes multiple and varied informational sources (e.g., articles, presentations, reports, webinars, briefs) on topics relation to RtI.  Use the tabs below to select information specific to a key feature of RtI.


This article provides a thoughtful comparison of three different articles authored by Vaughn (2003), O’Connor (2003), and Tilly (2003) on how many tiers are needed for successful prevention within an RtI framework. Each article is briefly summarized and then linked to the comparative studies. Marston examines and comments on consensus statements used within all three articles. Results are then explained and the author provided a summary of the comparison.

Guidance Documents

Assisting Students Struggling With Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades

Institute of Education Sciences What Works Clearinghouse U.S. Department of Education (2009)

This Practice Guide was developed by a panel from the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). It includes five recommendations designed to help educators use RtI practices to identify students struggling in reading and to implement specific interventions and encourage reading success. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.


Tiered Service-Delivery Model

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (2006)

This NRCLD article provides explanations on tier 1, tier 2 and tier 3 (as special education). Each section gives defining features of the supports and interventions. Included in each section are follow-up activities to activate thinking about implementing tiers within a multi-tiered RtI model. Each section concludes with recommended resources. A final section on parent involvement is presented with additional resources.


IES Practice Guide - Response to Intervention

Dr. Linan-Thompson and Dr. Dimino

This powerpoint presentation provides an overview of research in a multi-tiered RtI framework. Dr. Linan-Thompson and Dr. Dimino address the major components in all tiers stressing high levels of teacher-student interaction and differentiated reading instruction for all.

When screening and/or progress monitoring data indicate below grade level reading performance, supplemental or tiered intervention is provided. Tiered interventions constitute the heart of an RtI framework, and to be effective, require instruction that is highly focused and aligned to core or primary reading instruction and to the needs of the student. This presentation will focus on the nature of tiered interventions in grades K-4 in terms of early foundational skills essential to proficient reading: alphabetic principle, decoding, sight words, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. A discussion involving ELLs with respect to Tiers 2 and 3 intervention will center on the importance of vocabulary and spoken language.


Differentiation in the Tier 1 Setting

Dr. Katherine Dougherty Stahl

Differentiating Core Instruction Within an RtI Framework is a 3-part webinar series that focuses on differentiated instruction within an RtI framework. It begins with a discussion of differentiated instruction as a teaching and learning process designed to address the diverse abilities of students in the same classroom. Succeeding sessions will discuss how classroom teachers can differentiate core instruction to accommodate the instructional needs of all students.

Tier 2 & Tier 3 Intervention Within R &R

Dr. Virginia Buysse & Dr. Ellen Peisner-Feinberg

Tiered I Foundational Instruction in R & R

Dr. Virginia Buysse & Dr. Ellen Peisner-Feinberg

Tiered Interventions and CCLS

Dr. Katherine Dougherty Stahl

Tiered Interventions and CCLS

Dr. Katherine Dougherty Stahl

Sign Up For
Website Updates