chart paper (optional)
All students can benefit from this learning strategy, particularly those who demonstrate difficulties with reading comprehension.
In predicting, readers make thoughtful guesses, based on experience and available information. These guesses are either confirmed or revised on the basis of what is read. Students bring their personal experiences, prior knowledge, and world view to the text as they make and revise predictions that will enrich their comprehension.
After students have been taught how to use them, learning strategies are to be used by students independently. Learning strategies aid students in understanding information. Explicit Instruction (Modeling, Guided Practice, Independent Practice) should be used when teaching learning strategies to students.
Tell students they are going to make and revise predictions on a text. Read aloud the title and first paragraph of the story. Model several predictions on what will happen based on the title and what occurred in the story so far. Record the prediction on the board, chart paper, etc.
Distribute copies of the story and read it aloud. Stop when a point is reached where one of your predictions can be confirmed. Discuss whether the prediction was correct. Using a think-aloud, state what will happen as a result of the new information from the story. As you continue reading, stop and discuss predictions as appropriate. When the story if finished, solicit a conversation on how predicting helps with reading.
When the students are ready to begin predicting, tell them they are going to make and revise predictions on a text. Read aloud the title and first paragraph of a story. Ask them to create predications on what will happen based on the title and what has occurred thus far. If needed, work with students to record their predictions.
Give each student a copy of the story and read it aloud. If appropriate, you may invite students to join in at certain points. Stop when you reach the point where one of the students’ predictions can be confirmed. Discuss whether the prediction was correct. If not, ask students what they think will happen as a result of the new information they have. Continue the story, stopping and discussing predictions as appropriate.
After reading the story, have students reflect on how predicting helped them with their reading. For plausible but inaccurate predictions, emphasize the reasonableness of the prediction and the fact that the author had a different idea.
In subsequent lessons, when students have had enough guided practice in predicting, have them make predictions independently and read to confirm the accuracy of their predictions.
Adapted from Ontario Ministry of Education. (2008). A guide to effective literacy instruction. Ontario: Queen’s Printer
Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P. D. (2008). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. The Journal of Education, 189(1/2), 107-122.