Operations, Algebra

Tier I,II,III

1st—12th

3-15 mins, 3-5x per week, for 3-10 weeks

- audio recording/playback capable device
- taped problems worksheet
- timer/stopwatch
- headphones (optional)
- incentives (optional)

Teacher-mediated instructional practice to that uses prerecorded audio prompts.

**Variations**

- walk around the room and monitor student engagement and accuracy of implementation
- can add an interdependent group contingency can be added to the intervention by averaging class performance on problem sets and comparing to the previous week. If the average has improved, students can receive rewards.

1. Determine the skill(s) used for the intervention according to CBA or computer adapted assessments. The earliest unmastered pre-requisite skills in the sequence for the math operation should be targeted first.

2. Consider dividing the target skill into sets of 10-20 problems that are presented one set at a time, introducing a new set only after mastery of the previous set.

3. Construct a worksheet with a list of problems (excluding the answer), that represents each set. Be sure to number the problems.

4. Create a recording using your recording/playback device. State the problems that align with each problem set worksheet in order, using the numbers on the worksheet. New problems should be stated 3 seconds following reading the answer to the previous problem. Each problem in the set will be read four times total. The first time through, record each problem in the same order as the worksheet with the answer (no delay, begin with problem and answer). The second time through the set record each problem with a 3-second delay between reading the problem and answer. The third and fourth times through use a 2 and 1-second delay, respectively.

5. Inform the students they will listen to a recording with problems and answers. Ask them to follow along with the recording on their worksheet. Instruct them to try and "beat the tape" by writing the answer to the problem before the answer is provided by the recording. Tell them to correct any mistakes as needed.

6. At the end of each session (or at least once weekly), all students should be administer a brief assessment (e.g., CBA), which is scored to monitor progress on the skill.

7. Once every other week or monthly, a multiple-skill CBM probe is administered to progress monitor for generalization.

McCallum, E., Skinner, C. H., & Hutchins, H. (2004). The taped-problems intervention: Increasing division fact fluency using a low-tech self-managed time-delay intervention. *Journal of Applied School Psychology, 20, *129-147.

McCallum E., Skinner, C. H., Turner, H., & Saecker, L. (2006). The taped-problems intervention: Increasing multiplication fact fluency using a low-tech, class wide, time-delay intervention. *School Psychology Review, 35, *419-434.

McClearly, D. F., Aspiranti, K. B., Skinner, C. H., Foster, L. N., Luna, E., Murray, K., et al. (2011). Enhancing math fact fluency via taped problems in intact second- and fourth-grade classrooms. *Journal of Evidence-Based **Practices for Schools, 12, *179-201.

_{Information on this entry was adapted from Codding, R.S., Volpe, R.J., & Poncy, B.C. (2017). Effective math interventions: A guide to improving whole-number knowledge. New York: The Guilford Press.}