Incremental Rehearsal

Instructional Practice
Operations, Algebra
Tier III

10-20 mins, 2x weekly, for 4-12 weeks

  • flash cards
  • individualized worksheets
  • timer/stopwatch

This is a teacher-direction instructional practice for mastering math facts

How To

1. Determine the skill(s) used for the intervention according to CBA or computer adapted assessments.  The earliest unmastered pre-requisite skills in the sequence for the math operation should be targeted first.

2. Conduct a fact assessment before each intervention session.  All math facts for the targeted skill are randomly shuffled and presented one at a time.  Any fact the student does not answer correctly within 2-3 seconds is considered incorrect.  Place incorrect responses in one pile (unknown), and correct responses in a separate pile (known).  Record which facts are unknown.

3. From the pile of known facts, select nine flash cards to use throughout the intervention session.

4. Select the first unknown fact from the pile of unknown flash cards and verbally state the number combination with the answer.

5. Ask the student to orally restate the number combination and the answer that you just modeled.  If the student provides an incorrect answer, repeat step four.

6. Present the first known fact from the nine selected cards to the student and ask him/her to say the number combination and the answer.

7. Present the first unknown fact a second time and ask the student to say the number combination and answer.

8. Present the first known fact again, followed Bly the second known fact from the nine selected known flash cards and ask the student to say the number combination and answers.

9.  Continue with the progression described in steps 5-8, adding one new known fact each trial, so that the first unknown fact (U1) is practiced nine times and all nine known facts are practices after the unknown fact is presented.  The last trial = U1, K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, K6, K7, K8, K9).

10. Once the sequence is completed (steps 5-9), the first unknown fact becomes the first known fact and the ninth known fact is removed.

11. Repeat steps 4-10 for the second unknown fact from the unknown flash card pile.

12. The number of unknown facts practiced each session will vary (usually between three and six). When three errors occur while releasing one fact, Incremental Rehearsal should be stopped.

13. At the end of each session (or at least once weekly), all students should be administer a brief assessment (e.g., CBA), which is scored to monitor progress on the skill.

14. Once every other week or monthly, a multiple-skill CBM probe is administered to progress monitor for generalization.



Burns, M. K. (2005). Using incremental rehearsal to increase fluency of single-digit multiplication facts with children identified as learning disabled in mathematics computation. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 237-249.

Burns, M. K., Zaslofsky, A., Kanive, R., & Parker, D (2012). Meta-analysis of incremental rehearsal using phi coefficients to compare single case and group designs. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21, 185-202.

Codding, R. S., Archer, J. & Connell, J. (2010). A systematic replication and extension of using incremental rehearsal to improve multiplication skills: An investigation of generalization. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19, 93-105.

Information on this entry was adapted from Codding, R.S., Volpe, R.J., & Poncy, B.C. (2017). Effective math interventions: A guide to improving whole-number knowledge. New York: The Guilford Press.

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