Cover, Copy, & Compare (CCC) Math Facts

Learning Strategy

3-15 mins, 2-5x per week, for 2-16 weeks (skill dependent)


Index cards (optional)

CCC Math Facts: Math worksheets with 10-15 math facts (5-10 for grades 1-3) listed on the left side of the sheet and blank lines on the right for writing each fact two or three times. There should be enough space for corrections and one to three sheets per students.

Target Student

All students can benefit from this self-managed intervention.


Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC) is a self-managed intervention that can be used to enhance accuracy in math fact fluency other academic subject areas. In CCC, students look at an academic stimulus (e.g., math fact). They then cover it, copy it, and evaluate their response by comparing it to the original fact. If there is an error, the students engage in error correction procedures before moving onto the next item.


Cover, Copy, Compare (CCC) is a learning strategy. Use explicit instruction (explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice) to teach CCC to students.

Using Explicit Instruction to Teach a Strategy
1. Explain the strategy. Using posters for each strategy, tell students what steps they will be expected to follow and explain why students should learn them

2. Model the strategy. Next, use modeling- Use a think aloud strategy, and voice aloud the thought process behind each stage. This may need to occur over the course of several days based on the needs of the students.

3. Guided practice: Guide students in performing the strategy in small groups or in pairs. During this time, scaffold the learning and support students who need assistance in using the strategy. They can also model the think aloud strategy (when in pairs) to strengthen comprehension and learning of the steps involved.

4. Independent practice: After guided practice, students should only use the strategy independently, once they have shown they have mastered the strategy. Students can also be given the opportunity to reflect on the strategy.

How To

Determine the skill(s) to be used for intervention according to the average class performance according to CBA or computer-adapted assessments.  The earliest unmastered prerequisite skills in sequence for each math operation should be targeted.

CCC Math Facts
Silently read the math fact on the list on the left side of the paper.

Cover the math fact* and write it again from memory on the blank line on the right side of the paper.

Uncover the math fact and compare it to yours.

Evaluate your response. If the fact is incorrect, repeat the procedure with the math fact before proceeding to the next word.

Repeat the procedure for the next fact on the paper.

*Note – you can also fold the paper to cover the fact, rather than using an index card or your hand. Some children may find using index cards cumbersome.

Implementation Considerations
Implement the CCC procedure several times a week. CCC can become tedious if it is implemented too often (or too long), so it is best used as one of several independent seat work activities or as a review at the end of the lesson.

Set a fixed amount of time for CCC sessions if implementing with a whole group or class (3 to 15 minutes).

When students reach mastery (at least 90% accuracy) on a set of items, they should be provided with a new set. Two or three facts from prior lists should be included in new sets to promote retention.


Codding, R. S., Burns, M. K., & Lukito, G. (2011). Meta‐analysis of mathematics basic-fact fluency interventions: A component analysis.  Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 26, 36­‐47.

Grafman, J. M., & Cates, G. L. (2010). The differential effects of two self­‐managed math instruction procedures: Cover, copy, and compare versus copy, cover, and compare. Psychology in the School, 47, 153-165. doi:10.1002/pits.20459

Joseph, L. M., Konrad, M., Cates, G., Vajcner, T., Eveleigh, E., & Fishley, K. M. (2011). A meta­‐analytic review of the cover-copy-compare and variations of this self-management procedure.  Psychology in the Schools, 49, 122-136. doi:10.1002/pits.20622

Related Resources

Cover-Copy-Compare Teacher Log

Cover-Copy-Compare Worksheet (horizontal format)

Cover-Copy-Compare Worksheet (vertical format)

Related Websites

Intervention Central

Adapted from Master Math Facts: Cover-Copy-Compare (n.d.). In: Intervention Central.

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